Historical Ideas And Forms, 1919

Four Inaugural Lecturesexcerpts TWI ENI KAI PANTI 1. Our Life's DutyLecture to open the courses on Ancient History and The History of the Arts, held in the winter semester of MCMXIX-MCMXX at the University of Cluj, read on II November MCMXIX From one day to the next, nations live by the ever unchanging labor of the many. The sole exertion of the soul of the simple man is to preserve the craft of his forefathers as unchanged as possible, that which provides him – according to his trade – sustenance. And the popular memory is very precise: some procedures find their beginnings, identical to their present form, in the prehistoric epoch. The continuity of popular civilizations over the course of the millennia is properly a mere echo of the continuity of life in nature: the evolution of the latter takes place within limits of time so immense that they are inaccessible to human control; it is thus possible to speak of a true eternity of popular, conservative primitivism. Historically, which is to say in terms of human evolution, peoples live only through the fact of precursors and rebels. The latter, like perpetually malcontent demons, disturb the beatitude of their contemporaries' spiritual languor, they arouse illusions and appetites, they stir up passions, they demolish the precious equilibrium of perfect inertia. Whether the popular masses then come to blows in wars, or whether they peacefully use the idea of the inventors, ancestral mimeticism and utilitarianism, also lashed by the instinct of curiosity – which is older than mankind itself – impel them to make modifications, of greater or lesser profundity, to their sacrosanct traditions. During almost the whole course of human history, this huge power of the creators of new ideas has been usurped by oligarchies or autocracies, which have politically ruled the great popular masses. Each new exemplar of superman has rapidly been enrolled, catalogued, made uniform, in the priestly caste, the monarchical court, or the political clientele of the rulers of the various states or nations, either by sword or by icon. The recalcitrant have been suppressed with the willing concurrence of the masses of the weak-minded. But very rarely, when the political potentates have had a romantic respect for the creative genius as such, the inventors of ideas have been capable of being masters of their own lives and disseminating their idea at will. However, these rare epochs – post-Alexandrine Hellenism, imperial romanticism – correspond to a naïve regularization of the selection of creative heads by the state. What is introduced is a system – very similar to the contemporary school – of industrialization and mechanical multiplication of new ideas and of philosophical training of the human animal en masse. The international democracies – the Hellenist, the imperial-Roman, the present-day democracies – have all attempted the possibility of multiplication of higher souls by mechanical means. The method – invented by the ancients – has, of course, also been warmly embraced by the militant religious orders – especially by that of Ignatius – founded by the Western Church. Contemporary democracy, whether bourgeois or socialist, is dominated by the idea of disseminating culture to the larger masses of the working class. But the great heresy of creating geniuses through the factories of culture that are the Universities and Academies has more and more begun to lose ground. With very great regret, the Pontificates of dogmatized wisdom have begun to recognize their impotence to create anything other than docile intellectual parrots and gelatinous ethical invertebrates. The official school has begun to recognize that all the doctorates of science and diplomas of art in the world cannot turn a monkey with a sufficient gift for imitation into a creator of new spiritual values. The monumental heads of philosophical, artistic and scientific schools have begun to recognize that the school, as an institution to educate the masses, does not have the mechanical, militaristic and trivial purpose of standardizing thought and regulating creation, but rather the more modest duty of de-animalizing the minds of the masses and of rapidly procuring working technical means for the minds of the geniuses. The contemporary "professor", if he is, in fact, a superior man, is today no longer an infallible prophet of revealed sentences, but a "prospector" for gold and diamonds in the rocky waste of human non-understanding. Like Diogenes of Sinope, the contemporary professor has to seek men, in the schools, as well as in the wider world, with a lamp lit during the daytime; integral men, in whom the flame of the idea flickers. Today, we have art-lovers, we have experts in wines and thoroughbred horses, but we do not have appraisers of new souls. You do not see anyone rejoicing, being happy, because in the throng of school satchel-bearers he has found an anarchist of the current laws of thought, someone disquiet, a tortured seeker of new laws. On the contrary, the best loved, among the offspring of mankind who elevate themselves to proper awareness, is the most docile of the memorizers of consecrated wisdom. Novelty of spirit requires freedom, open air. And freedom cannot blossom in a herd. And nor should it blossom there; what would happen if all the dumb animals that require leadership and social discipline were to gambol according to their own bestial whim! But even in the great scholastic agglomerations it is possible to create the freedom to fly for those tortured by the inner demon. This freedom grows from the spiritual state of love for an idea. Let the teacher also make himself a mere scholar, running together with the children and the adolescents in pursuit of the wonderful glow-worm of the idea, which illumines the darkness of everyday utilitarian banality. As much of this spirit, this camaraderie in enthusiasm, for the ideal of every kind, as there is in a school, as much freedom of thought and thus as much the capacity to make souls blossom will there be in that comradeship of future men. Likewise, nor does freedom of spirit flourish where man is slave to the body. Love of the idea is a lyricism out of place in a world where "time is money". For a hundred years, man has lived according to the materialist creed: economically, socially, historically. The entire struggle for life in contemporary humanity is between capital and labor. Used to buying intelligence whenever it has need of it, in order to increase wealth, or to beautify life, capitalism does not regard it as another rival. Used to not having any need for intelligence, socialism ignores it, unable to imagine it as an eventual rival. The triumphant capitalism of the West scornfully tramples under foot all the ideals for which intellectuals, in solidarity with the people, believed they had to fight in the Great War. Triumphant socialism in the East – at least as a transient political experiment – has begun by destroying all that is not primitiveness or the bestiality of the amorphous mass. Because it is without physical strength, because it is less numerous, because it is annoying in its demands for unprofitable sacrifice, for the useless pursuit of the ideal, the contemporary creative intelligence is wholly crushed: by impertinent massivity of the rich man who sweats grease and by the clumsy brutality of the proletariat that thinks of nothing but more bread. The target of any expenditure of energy in the current world is to increase productivity. A monstrous depletion of all the powers of the earth and of mankind, in order to provide ever more material to be assimilated by the belly and the lower appetites. Every idea is valued according to the (pragmatic) interest that it awakens. Every ideal institution of society is industrially mechanized. For a hundred years, not one single epochal idea has been born, to open unknown roads in architecture, in philosophy, in sculpture, in religion, in morals. Only science – and namely applied science in particular – has made enormous strides forward. The result of a great majority of this progress is, however, the learned assassination of millions of unfortunates who, without these inventions and discoveries, would not have died in such numbers, or so horribly, in the present war. Indeed, all the great questions of the human soul, aware of the historic continuity of the human mind in struggle, are posed once more: how should the investigation of the real be carried out; how should the search for the truth be guided; how should the beautiful be understood; what position should be taken as regards the world and life; how should the natural selection of talent and genius be aided; how should the ends of social, political and national life be ennobled; how should infinite human bestiality be fought, which uproots so many fellow men? All these questions, which alone can justify the sequestering of so many individual freedoms in the interest of the social good, ought to preoccupy the founders of a new official foundation of social culture, generative of culture. But above all in a people such as ours, as yet in social and national formation, these questions are obligatory under the sanction of the absurdity of such a new institution in the midst of needs much more stringent, infinitely more adequate to the primitiveness of our public life. For, if the new university is to be nothing more than a factory for superficiality and uselessness, of social, cultural and political non-values, then its foundation is not only absurd but also immoral. Of course, each social sin is reflected in a people in all its foundations. In a world of empty heads and base utilitarians, the general conspiracy of the incompetent will people the highest places in the hierarchy of socio-cultural or socio-political responsibilities with their own representatives. But under the impetus of popular mystical idealism, always strongly awakened in epochs of great upheavals and revolutions, two or three brave men, supported by this trustful and warm ambience, may set in motion great spiritual reforms, which in ordinary times would not have been brought even after an evolution of decades or centuries. Here we have before us a work of revolution, accomplished by revolutionary means, inspired by a wholly disinterested love for the better, defended, precisely through that naïve and pure hope of the many, from the attacks of the traditional powers, voluntarily ignored by the founders and enraged by this ignorance. The supreme purpose of our struggle is the spiritualization of the great socio-political and culturally creative organism that is the nation. The means we employ are not of an exclusively socio-cultural character and proceed from the unique source of national idealism. Our method is that of cultivating and selecting superior souls, by putting to the test each individual entrusted to us, with the touchstone of the Cult of the Idea. Whoever resists and produces a spark is worthy to join the confraternity of the National University. Whoever is merely a gross rock is returned to the heap, in order to serve as highway paving for the construction of the new road towards the higher spheres. Opportunism, haggling, reducibility are not permitted to us. We are the harsh priests of a religion of purification. We are the prophets of a time that is far too distant for the hurried appetites of the contemporary famished hunters, but immediately accessible to us through the wider horizon of historical-philosophical vision. We are condemned to be irreducible or else to withdraw from the fight. For, upon us weighs the responsibility for the entire life of the nation. The health of its soul is entrusted to us. And we are indebted to fight to preserve eternally this immunity to decay and death. How could we, even for a moment, make any concession to evil when we know that its powers, in spite of our most tenacious fight, still remain huge, having their source in eternal cosmic inertia? We must be the oracle, to whom the multitude runs at the hour when destiny is in the balance, in order to enlighten them about the future; for only we think loftier than ignoble socio-political time and space. We must be the critical spirit whereby the nation is illumined, when in the wretchedness of the struggle for life and in the chaos of ardent political clashes, it sees the entire scale of values overthrown and what it considered holy is shown up as filthy by the raucous fighters of no conscience, while what had seemed base is presented to it as ideal. We must explain to it that material civilization alone is nothing loftier than a systematic barn for well fed and curried cattle, but that it is by no means an order in which there is a place for the soul, which, in man, is idea. The work of purification that falls upon us, the new, current generation, is wholly ungrateful. It is demanded of us that we sacrifice our very souls: we shall not be able to do anything completely, but rather we shall merely clear the path for others. Those who will come after us will confound us with the same primitivism as that of the society in which we live, and they will not even suspect the tragedy of tortured, mocked, misunderstood, betrayed precursors which was in us. Able to work, in selfish solitude, like the best in the illumined nations of the West, we shall have left nothing whole behind us, nothing harmonious, nothing resembling the great love of the idea that was in us. What is the soul with which we shall work? Of course, it is, above all, the soul of the Daco-Roman peasant. What then are the potentialities of this soul? There exists a natural selection of national intelligence based on the struggle to adapt, in which nations must engage in order to conquer the difficulties raised in their path by nature or by man. The mind is honed from generation to generation in the direction of the easiest conquest of those obstacles. In nations overly wracked by historical adversities – the case of our own nation, martyred by all the foreigners of the earth – a kind of spiritual carapace is formed, in which the soul takes refuge in order to preserve itself intact. The superficial observer sees only the horny and inert carapace: specifically, the fatalism, the insensibility to the needs of a more humane life, the traditionalism, the mistrust of any new person or thing, the harshness and coarseness in various individual or social manifestations. But the patient observer, who waits for the genuine organism that shelters within to emerge from its jagged shell, will have the joy of seeing a very fine and complex, very delicately constructed being, with numerous organs for the more varied and powerful apperception of the world, entirely unsuspected only from the aspect of the stony crust. The cosmic fatalism corresponds to the splendid pagan and Christian optimistic ethic, which gives the wronged the assurance that evil will not remain unpunished and that therefore he can wait with philosophical resignation for the immanent punishment of the injustice. The insensibility to the hardships and trivialities of the material life correspond to the enthusiastic desire for it to be beautiful at least on high days, which increases its inclination for art of every kind. Peasant traditionalism corresponds to an extraordinarily multilateral curiosity, even for things wholly alien to its principal experience. The mistrust of anything new corresponds to the desire to discover the mystery of that novelty, in order to examine it: whence a spirit of observation and exceptionally sharp criticism, often far surpassing that of the cultivated man used to formulae taken ready-made from books. Harshness in manners corresponds to a sense of measure and spiritual propriety, all the more powerful the more it is not displayed externally, except in a wholly rough way. The child of the peasant is thrown into the struggle for life from an age younger than that of the cap on his father's head. He must learn on his own how to get out of the difficulty. And the school of practical agility of body and soul is completed for him by the struggle – not sought by whoever desires it, but imposed upon all – for spiritual precedence or distinction, extraordinarily prized in peasant society. For each, agility of mind is put to the test at any moment, not only by an immediate and utilitarian interest, but all the more so by the purely aesthetic pleasure the peasant has in seeing a superior mind sparkling. Swiftness of apperception, liveliness of reflection, justness of judgment, promptness in rebutting the contrary argument, mastery of self in the heat of the battle of wits, the chivalry of immediate condemnation of the devious or brutal means of contest, all that wonderful self-education with which peasant society endows itself, sparkling with verve, with joy of life, tensed like a continually vibrating musical string, with a sincerity almost antique in its consistency, with chivalry as a highly complex code – all these are a reality which the superposed class – mainly from another nation than our people – has not known and thus has not had in view when organizing the social culture of the nation. We have seen ourselves end up with the ridiculous Babylon of introducing the peasant child into the life of nature through books, which proclaim to him the great new truth that "the ox is a four-legged animal". The soul of the Romanian peasant arrives at us – the university confraternity – wholly wearied, downcast, disgusted and often even mutilated by the factories of systematic banalization, named primary and secondary school. Is it any wonder that the son of the peasant who has passed through all the stages of the scholastic factory is neurasthenic or irremediably neurotic? For, someone must be too strongly recalcitrant to all discipline, or too strongly spiritual: dominating all external violence, in order to resist the flattening clod crusher that is the mechanically-industrially organized school, which subjects the genius and the slow-witted to the same shared training. Thus, instead of being a fraternal college of young and old, the meaning of the world and of life, the university, in the current chaos and decadence, has to be a veritable hospital for the mutilated in spirit. In order to recover their right minds, these children of a truly noble race, fallen into the educating hands of men crookedly prepared or badly led, we must restore to them the lively, joyous atmosphere of home, lacking in pedantry and magisterial self-importance, natural in the full freedom from older to younger brother, warm, childishly idealistic – and, without doubt, many souls will blossom once more, shining in their original, penetrating, clear, creative intelligence – although, as certainly, many others will remain crippled forever, taking with them the burning regret of having been born too soon before the beginning of the process of purifying our wretched social order. Every nation must have its own method of de-animalizing the masses and of selecting talent and genius. The children of our peasants, lively and clear-headed, do not need murderously methodical cramming, concocted as an educational system by nations sluggish in spirit for their mollycoddled and dullard children. Our school must be different, proceeding from the ethno-psychological reality of our national soul and ramified according to the specific social aims of our current evolution. However, while the soul we are to work with is qualitatively of an unsurpassed finesse and original suppleness, in cultural-evolutionary terms it is still at the first stage of childhood. It has made only a very modest stage in the psycho-physiological honing necessary for the great abstraction of the superior creative cultures. The transition from the vegetative-ethnographical stage – however brilliant the latter – to the culturally creative, generally human, universally valid, is far from having been achieved. A fresh soul from the countryside, subject to the formidable pressure of the contemporary ideological capital, can rarely bear the burden with perfect elasticity and not be left deformed. Not until the third, gradually intellectualized generation will the Romanian peasant reveal his incomparable spiritual qualities. And it is characteristic that even in our historical past such a gradual intellectualization has led not only to our spiritual-creative equality with other nations older in culture but also to our superiority over them, ourselves giving them spiritual leaders. From these findings results the general-human broadness of the inspiring horizon of ideas – as an essential condition of any superiorization of culture, whether individual or social. The national is something biological-political; it is the unitary self-awareness of an independent organism, in the struggle for existence with other analogous organisms and employing for defense even the animal form of struggle that is war. The national is not the supreme goal of spiritualization, but rather its raw material, which is to be ennobled by means of general-human thought, so that its creations will become universally and eternally valid. You are national in any creation of higher culture not consciously, willingly, but unconsciously, fatally. But just as you do not desire, but are, without your will, in the work of art, whether lyric or epic, so you are, without desiring, national in your soul. Man, whether cultivated or uncultivated, works ideologically with a material of general-human ideas. Ethnographically, i.e. sub-culturally, as well as superior-creatively, i.e. truly culturally, the essence of the various national civilizations is similar: not only in the guiding ideas, but often even in some concrete forms, clothed by these ideas. Compare the Romanian ethnographical civilization with the Scandinavian, with the Peruvian or even with that of the Negro Mohammedans and compare Greek culture of the classical age with Mexican culture before the Spanish invasion. The different quality of the national souls is an entity of a differential and potential rather than essential order. Whether through specialization of the unconscious spiritual aptitudes or through the exceptional strength of the apperceptive and rational power, peoples come to differ from one another in some way – we might say thermally; some in cold blood, the masculine moon, the feminine sun – others the opposite. The identity of the general, psycho-physiological construction, in all human races creates the universally valid spiritual substratum of all civilizations. The cosmic law of the differentiation of aptitudes even in the organ pairs of the same individual creates, innumerably varied ethno-psychological potencies and nuances, based on the multiple factors of influence the earth exerts upon man. The unique means of accentuating the differential is that of intensifying the generic. Widening and deepening our culture of men simple as any others, becoming more spiritualized as citizens of the world, the specifically national unconscious within us, which fatally tinges any higher creation of art, philosophy or science, because of the predominance of the instinct over the intelligence in any new inspiration (otherwise the most erudite would be the highest geniuses, while, on the contrary, the genius proceeds by means of transcendental inspiration), the subconscious, as I say, has a much vaster field of manifestation, as intensive as it is extensive. But even more than that. There is not even a bridge between the ethnographical and the cultural. The ethnographical is something definitive, millenary and universal, an ultimate result of the natural popular genius. The ethnographical expresses an ethical, aesthetic and metaphysical conception of the world and of life as a result of the experience of many centuries; both the ideas and its forms make up a separate world, from whence there is no crossing; just as there is no crossing from the civilization of the Lapps to that of the Greeks. The cultural is something abstract, symbolic, artificial. The cultural is the result of aristocratic-idealist spiritualization by the path of training and forced selection in a given space and time. The ethnographical proceeds from instincts. The cultural proceeds from ideas. The cultural is ever changing in its refined evolution towards ever more complex creative ideas. The ethnographical is perpetually stable, founded on the most meticulous traditionalism. The necessities of the higher spiritual life are wholly unknown to the ethnographical life. To take ethnographical values and forms in order to express cultural values and forms means irremediably to confound two wholly disparate states of spirit and to create a monster of false civilization. It is not the form that creates the idea, but the idea that seeks its form. The cultural as concrete forms is exclusively the result of higher solitary thinking, born through spontaneous generation, from the cosmic law of qualitative and intensive differentiation, applied to isolated individuals. The most evident proof of our backward spiritual state is the confusion that is made between Romanian ethnography and the art or thought of higher Romanian culture. Our countrymen understand a direct extension of the ethnographical into the cultural, of the popular into the artistic-philosophical, instead of understanding them as two different worlds which are in contact, not directly, but through the intermediary of other worlds, which are the gradated stages of the collective-individual spiritualization: through a certain religion's propagation of a new complex of ideas; such as has been in other places and times: the higher mediaeval culture, the higher culture of the Renaissance etc., in their different phases, having grown gradually from living forces, the singular-genius, the popular genius of nations, differently colored in different nations, but just as abstractly fecundated from artificial to natural, not from popular to artistic-philosophical. We have but to intensify in the youth that runs to our lights not what is peasant in them but what is general-human. But this culturalization of our nascent intellectuals will not take place through the training of the spirit with the culture of a certain preferred nation. To try to make our culture a colonial extension of French, Italian, German or Anglo-Saxon culture is an error analogous to that, touched on previously, of the ethnographization of abstract creations. For, the culture of these nations is something organic, untransmissible; it represents a specific soul, different to our own. It would mean distorting our soul, or being mere mimetic animals, if we sought to think culturally like the Frenchman, Englishman, or German, whether contemporary or historical. The culture of a nation is born from the clash of foreign ideological influences, whether forcibly or willingly, with the creative national instinct. The younger a people is, however, the more it is liable to take the formal expression as idea. But, the form is something that cannot be assimilated: it is the specific, national interpretation of the pure idea. The idea alone can be assimilated, because it is general-human. The idea of the gothic cathedral in France and Italy has the same ferment but a wholly different embodiment. We have to offer the creative instinct to our nation, not forms. And the ideas will immediately be fruitful, while the forms will be sterile. Ideas in themselves, artistic, scientific, philosophical, social, political ideas, in the perpetuity – seen critically – of infinitely varied transubstantiation. It is not the higher culture of a nation but the culture of many nations that is to interest us. Only thus will we be able to slay the cheap mimeticism of forms and to force thinking, the taking of an original, personal stance. Historical culture, therefore, going hand in hand with philosophical and artistic culture, all of them general-human, and not singular-national, with a servile-colonial attitude towards them. The pure ideas, which circulate in the human-geographic space and in human-historical time, with the aid of the great creative geniuses, in whom they kindle the flame of the struggle for the transubstantiation of the abstract idea in a concrete form, are active in individuals and nations in the two eternally creative kinds of energy: sympathetic – through love towards the new idea – or repulsive, through hatred and opposition towards the new idea – in collision – through the antithetical creation of another thought. In both the one case and the other, the final result is still creation. Except that, in the case of hatred, the road to creation is longer and the expenditure of effort greater. Naturally, individuals, and after them, peoples, more joyously take the first road, that of love. The mother-idea of the whole of Romanian culture is the Roman idea. Our national, creative culture, in contrast to the ancient, popular, vegetative, ethnographical Daco-Roman culture, begins with the discovery of Rome. Rome had discovered us as early as the darkness of the Middle Ages. But we had not reacted. On the contrary, we discovered, along different paths, but with identical fulminatingly creative effects, simultaneously in all the three Romanian lands of Dacia – fully – only in the 17th century. Romanian historiography in Moldavia, Transylvania and Wallachia is the creator of the higher national cultural awareness of our people. And this higher national cultural awareness without delay kindles – the only sympathetic path – the primitive-natural soul of the daughter nation with desires, impulses, violently agitating ideas. The connection with mother-Rome is first made – for a long time – through the Italian sister, then the great sacred flame of the pure idea is inflamed by the whole of France. From 1789 until today, the Roman creative cultural idea is active in our nation through the intermediary of France. The Latin antiquarian as well as the Romantic Italophilic endeavors – of the new connection with the Roman idea – created nothing lasting. But Roman cultural ideas – properly speaking, ancient Graeco-Roman cultural ideas – are not the exclusive spiritual property of France today. The entire European and American world – we might say the entire civilized world – Latin, German, Anglo-Saxon – lives with Roman ideas. Exclusivity in our inspiration by France would lead us – if overly prolonged – to the intolerable situation of being a French cultural colony. The Roman idea must therefore be reduced to its principal purity, impregnated as much as possible with its primal-ancient, Helleno-Roman breath, and our reaction towards this idea must be ever more intensively national-Daco-Roman, freely inspired by our un-counterfeited soul, un-mannered by different exclusively contemporary influences. Clarifying and deepening our minds with the universal ideological experience – each nation causing a different string to vibrate within us – allowing our instinctive love for Rome to tint, according to its fatal laws, our creations, we shall have a large human substratum of creative cultural inspiration through the collision with other ideas – different to the Romanian. However, fulfillment of the very act of creation must be the most savage liberation from all the ballast, all the scaffolding up which we have climbed, in order to gaze as far and as profoundly as possible into the world. The supreme depersonalization, denationalization, detendentionalization must be the act of purification, a precursor to creation. Before the pure idea of philosophy, art and science there must stand the man pure of any transient worldly pretensions. From the union of his soul immaculate of anything worldly, will be born, with the pure idea – accordingly to supreme laws uncontrollable and ungovernable by us – the new work: resembling – as eternal, human validity – its mother, the idea – and resembling – as formal, national representation – its father, the creator. It is not our ferocious Romanianization within the ethnographically vegetative, but our continual humanization within the human sublime that will create the supreme splendor of Romanian creative culture. The tuning of the creator within the eternally human will make him flourish as far as the symbol of the eternity of each higher transformable element of our national life. And divine singers of the beautiful, incomparable prophets of the truth, will give the vision of the sublime, in the form of a transcendentally Romanian rhythm, to all peoples and all times. But in order to reach there, in order for our nation to live the universal-human, the confraternity of our University must convert the entire nation to the cult of the pure idea. Unsparing dematerialization; enthusiastic spiritualization, tireless investigation of the national reality for what is eternal in it; profoundly loving socio-cultural missionary activity, for the preparation of the entire host of brothers in the great mystery of the birth of our universal geniuses: behold the huge task that weighs on our shoulders as true parents of the nation. We must be the masters of the attitudes of the soul, the initiators into the mystery of movement in the world of ideas, those who through science, experience, suffering and dedication have been blessed at least with the gift of a single movement in the immense world of ideas. The disciples will enter each, they will test the tuning of the soul with the attitude of each of us and, either they will vibrate harmoniously in contact with the new idea or they will further seek the attitude fully akin to the formation of their individual soul.

by Vasile Pârvan (1882-1927)