Bucegi National Park

see site FaunaAs a result of investigations carried out it has been shown that in the Bucegi Mountains there are 3500 animal species known up to now, ranging from rotifers to mammals. Among the rotifer species, the most representative of the Bucegi National Park are: Adineta barbata, Elosa worallii, Encetrum saundersiae lophosoma, species of Habrotracha. The gastropod fauna is also extremely rich. It is represented here by about 105 species, of which we might mention: Dauderbardia transsylvanica, Pseudoalinda montana, Uncinaria elata, Alopia livida, Alopia canescens, Alopia mixia, A. Straminicolis. Due to the important adaptations they have undergone, the species of this class are able to live in nearly all environments. Oligochaetes, known as particularly important species in the process of pedogenesis, are found in the vegetation of forested areas and in the alpine zones. Fridericia ratzeli, Enchytreus albidus, Allolobophora dacica, Octolasium lacteum are representative for the Bucegi Mountains. Tardigrades which are found in bryophytes are represented here by 36 species, a very great variety. Hpsibius spitzbergensis, H. microbs, H. dujardini are among the species characteristic of certain areas in the Bucegi Mountains. Crustaceans are represented by 23 species, out of which five are specific to the Bucegi Mountains. Myriapods (dyplods and chilopods), represented by 20 species belonging to the Lithobius, Geophilius and Scolopendra genera, are typical to the forested ecosystem. The most representative invertebrates that can be seen in the Bucegi Mountains are arachnids and insects. Among arachnids, spiders are represented by 13 species, and acarinas by 145 species. Among the species characteristic of this zone are Allothrombium fuliginosum, Oribatula alpine, some species of the Phthynacarus, Steganacarus, Suctobelbella genera being characteristic of the mountainous area, especially the forested zone. The class of insects consists of 1300 species, the most representative being: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Very many species of this class are endemic to the Bucegi Mountains, such as: Leuctra carpatica, Cloroperla kisi, Nemoura carpatica, N. Fusca, Carabus arvensis charpathicus, C. planicollis charpathica, Erbia pharte romaniae. As to the aquatic fauna, Salmo truta fario species (the trout) is less frequently encountered in the river Ialomita, and so is Oncorhynchus mykis species in the mountain rivers from the Stag Valley. The eight species of amphibians encountered in the Bucegi Mountains are specific to the Carpathian massif. Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cristatus, Triturus montandoni, Bombina variegate variegate, Bufo bufo bufo, Rana temporaria temporaria belonging to this class are characteristic of the mountainous zone. These species can be found in the mountain forest ecosystems. The Lacerta agilis agilis species has been found in the beech forests and the Lacerta vivipara species in the alpine zone. The birds' vertebrate class is represented by 129 species. The avifauna of the massif can be divided according to criteria of vegetation and ethological criteria. In the first case, avifauna is divided into: alpine avifauna and forest avifauna, each category comprising specific species. According to the ethological criterion, the mountain avifauna can be divided into: species that nestle in the area, species of passage and species that come and search for food in the area. Out of the 129 species, 50 species belong to those that nestle in this area and can be considered as being specific to the Bucegi Mountains, such as: Alauda arvensis, Corvus corax, Troglodites troglodytes, Saxicola rubetra, Oenanthe oenanthe, Phoenicus ochruros, Turdus merula, Phyloscopus collybita, Prunella collaris, P.Modularis, Lanius collurio. Most species of this class have a palearctic distribution. Mammal fauna is represented by 45 species that inhabit the forests surrounding the foot of the mountain as well as in the forested subalpine zone: Cervus elephas, Capreolus capreolus, Sus scrofa Attila, Linx linx, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Felix silvestris, Ursus arctos, Rupicapra rupicapra, Sciurus vulgaris, Muscardinus avrellanarius, Microtus arvalis, Apodemus silvaticus, Clethrionomis glareolus. Edible dormouse (Glis glis) is quite frequently met, while Forest dormouse (Dryomis nitidula) quite rarely, as well as some species of mice, such as: Microtus arvalis, Apodemus silvaticus. Most species of mammals have a palearctic biogeographical representation. In the setting up of the Bucegi National Park reserve, besides its geological and floral significance, fauna in its entirety is also important and constitutes an argument for the declaration of this reservation. In this respect, besides the presentation of elements concerning fauna, their classification as biogeographical elements, rare endemic, endangered or protected elements has also a great importance. The fact that in this massif there is a great variety of species which constitute elements of a real scientific value should be taken into consideration when declaring the reservation. First of all, from a biogeographical point of view, only European species are found here: Mnioba tetraodum, Habrotracha elegans, Lepadella rottemburgii, Sena obscura, S. Montana, Meles meles, Felix silvestris, Linx linx, Sus scrofa Attila. Eurasian species are here in a wide variety: Rivulogamarus balcanicus, Briocamptus zschoukkei, Dendrobaena byblica, Leuctra fusca, Geotrupes pomonae, Bibio clavipes, Aporia crataegi, Triturus vulgaris vulgaris. In this area there can also be met a large number of Euro-Siberian species, out of which we mention: Tropacarus carinatus, Notrus palustris, Iacarus coracinus, Eupelops duplex, Capnia vidua, Bombus subteraneus, Turdus pilaris. Columba palumbus, C. oenas, Streptopelia turtur, Coracios garrulous species of birds are met in the Euro-Turkistan area. Another criterion which brings convincing arguments for declaring and setting up the reservations throughout the Park is the presence of many endemic mountainous species: Allothrombium fuliginosum, Ena obscura Montana, Allolobophora dacica, Leuctra carpatica, Nemoura carpathica, N. fusca, Erebia pharte romaniae. Some of the species identified in Bucegi Mountains are considered as rare: Hermanniela dolosa, Macrobiotus hibernicus, Hypsibius clavatus, H. nodosus, H. tuberculatus, Vipera berus bosniensis. In this area there are glacial remaining species of a high importance: Pachimerium tristanicum, Ena obscura Montana, Amara erratica, Biapertura affinis, Lacerta vivipara. Among protected species there are: Formica rufa, Tetraos urogalus, Linx linx, while bird species such as: Gyps fulvus, Aegipius monachus, Aquila chrysaetosus, A. haliaca haliacas are extinct and the area should be repopulated, bearing in mind their ecological importance. Fauna in the cavesThe terrestrial fauna of the caves consists of many troglophile and subtroglophile species widely spread in this area. More representative species are to be found in the Ratei Cave, Ialomitei Cave, the Small Cave and the Bear Cave, the last two situated in the Tataru Gorges. Paranemastoma sillii, Neanura plena, Thaumanura carolii, Onychiurus armatus, O. carpaticus, Folsomia quadriocellata, Stenophylax permistus, S. vibex speluncarum, Micropterna sequax, Limonia nubeculosa were encountered in the Ratei Cave. Fridericia ratzeli, Parasitus niveus, Euryparasitus emarginatus, Folsomia listeri, Catops tristis, Duvalius procerus, Niptus crenatus, Ceratophysella sigillata, Onychiurus armatus were found in the Ialomita Cave. In the Small Cave of the Tataru Gorges species such as: Onychiurus armatus, O. subgranulosus, Stenophylax perinistus, S. vibex speluncarum have been found. Enchytraeus albidus, Parasitus niveus, Lepidocyrtus serbicus, Tomocerus flavescens, Neelus murinus are found in the Bear Cave, Tataru Gorges. The subterranean aquatic fauna in the caves of the Bucegi Massif might be much more interesting, but researches are still insufficient. In the Ialomita Cave we noticed the presence of an Amphipod endemic subspecies known as Niphargus carphaticus cavernicolus. On the surface of the deposit in the caves of the Tataru Gorges there is a great quantity of material of karst modeling origin, and in some areas accumulations of gravel can be seen. The stalagmite crust contains a sub fossil fauna made up of: Vulpex vulpex, Ursus arctos, Capra ibex, Rupicapra asi, some fossil elements of Ursus spelaeus and Felix spelaea. Animal species protected by law-Formica rufa (the Red Wood Ant)-Tetrao urogallus (the Capercaillie)-Covux corax (the Raven)-Aquila chrysaetos (the Eagle)-Rupicapra rupicapra (the Chamois)-Cervus elaphus (the Red Deer)-Linx linx (the Lynx)-Ursus arctos (the Brown Bear) Translated by Dorina Palade

by Anonymous